# Channel and delay estimation for base-station–based cooperative communications in frequency-selective fading channels

Keywords:
electronic patient records, digital watermarking, steganography, mobile devices, security, health care

### Abstract

A channel and delay estimation algorithm for both positive and negative delay, based on the distributed Alamouti scheme, has been recently discussed for base-station–based asynchronous cooperative systems in frequency-flat fading channels. This paper extends the algorithm, the maximum likelihood estimator, to work in frequency-selective fading channels. The minimum mean square error (MMSE) performance of channel estimation for both packet schemes and normal schemes is discussed in this paper. The symbol error rate (SER) performance of equalisation and detection for both time-reversal space-time block code (STBC) and single-carrier STBC is also discussed in this paper. The MMSE simulation results demonstrated the superior performance of the packet scheme over the normal scheme with an improvement in performance of up to 6 dB when feedback was used in the frequency-selective channel at a MSE of 3 x 10^{–2}. The SER simulation results showed that, although both the normal and packet schemes achieved similar diversity orders, the packet scheme demonstrated a 1 dB coding gain over the normal scheme at a SER of 10

^{–5}. Finally, the SER simulations showed that the frequency-selective fading system outperformed the frequency-flat fading system.

### References

1. Laneman JN, Wornell GW. Distributed space-time coded protocols for exploiting cooperative diversity in wireless networks. IEEE Trans Inf Theory. 2003;49(10):2415–2425. doi:10.1109/TIT.2003.817829

2. Wang D, Fu SL. Asynchronous cooperative communications with STBC coded single carrier block transmission. Paper presented at: IEEE International Conference on Global Communications 2007. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Global Communications; 2007 Nov 26–30; Washington DC, USA. Washington DC: IEEE Communication Society; 2007. p. 2987–2991.

3. Li X. Space-time coded multi-transmission among distributed transmitters without perfect synchronisation. IEEE Signal Process Lett. 2004;11(12):948–951. doi:10.1109/LSP.2004.838213

4. Wei S, Goeckel DL, Valenti MC. Asynchronous cooperative diversity. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun. 2006;5(6):1547–1557. doi:10.1109/TWC.2006.1638675

5. Li Z, Xia XG. A simple Alamouti space-time transmission scheme for asynchronous cooperative systems. IEEE Signal Process Lett. 2007;14(11):803–807. doi:10.1109/LSP.2007.900224

6. Skjevling H, Gesbert D, Hjørungnes A. Precoded distributed space-time block codes in cooperative diversity-based downlink. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun. 2007;6(12):4209–4214. doi:10.1109/TWC.2007.051008

7. Tourki K, Deneire L. Channel and delay estimation algorithm for asynchronous cooperative diversity. Wireless Pers Commun. 2006;37:361–369. doi:10.1007/s11277-006-9033-x

8. Xu H, Padayachee L. Channel and delay estimation for base-station–based cooperative communications in frequency flat-fading channels. S Afr J Sci. 2010;106(3/4):32–37. doi:10.4102/sajs.v106i3/4.60

9. Mheidat H, Uysal M, Al-Dhahir N. Equalization techniques for distributed space-time block codes with amplify-and-forward relaying. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun. 2007;55(5):1839–1852.

10. Simeone O, Spagnolini U. Lower bound on training-based channel estimation error for frequency-selective block-fading Rayleigh MIMO channels. IEEE Trans Signal Processing. 2004;52(11):3265–3277. doi:10.1109/TSP.2004.836534

11. Sirbu M. Channel and delay estimation algorithms for wireless communication systems. PhD thesis, Helsinki, Helsinki University of Technology, 2003.

12. Li. Z, Xia XG, Lee MH. A simple orthogonal space-time coding scheme for asynchronous cooperative systems for frequency selective fading channels. IEEE Trans Commun. 2010;58(8):2219–2224. doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2010.08.090226

13. Dong M, Tong L. Optimal design and placement of pilot symbols for channel estimation. IEEE Trans Signal Processing. 2002;50(12):3055–3069. doi:10.1109/TSP.2002.805504

14. Zhou S, Giannakis GB. Single-carrier space-time block-coded transmissions over frequency-selective fading channels. IEEE Trans Inf Theory. 2003;49(1):164–178. doi:10.1109/TIT.2002.806158

15. Mheidat H. Channel estimation and equalization for cooperative communication. PhD thesis, Ontario, University of Waterloo, 2006.

16. Mheidat H, Uysal M. Equalization techniques for space-time coded cooperative systems. Paper presented at: IEEE 60th Vehicular Technology Conference 2004. Proceedings of IEEE 60th Vehicular Technology Conference; 2004 Sep 26–29; Los Angeles, California, USA. New York: IEEE Communications Society; 2004. p. 1708–1712.

17. Berriche L, Abed-Meraim K, Belfiore JC. Cramér-Rao bounds for MIMO channel estimation. Paper presented at: IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 2004. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing; 2004 May 17–21; Montreal, Canada. New York: IEEE Signal Processing Society; 2004. p. 397–400.

18. Fragouli C, Al-Dhahir N, Turin W. Training-based channel estimation for multiple-antenna broadband transmissions. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun. 2003;2(2):384–391. doi:10.1109/TWC.2003.809454

2. Wang D, Fu SL. Asynchronous cooperative communications with STBC coded single carrier block transmission. Paper presented at: IEEE International Conference on Global Communications 2007. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Global Communications; 2007 Nov 26–30; Washington DC, USA. Washington DC: IEEE Communication Society; 2007. p. 2987–2991.

3. Li X. Space-time coded multi-transmission among distributed transmitters without perfect synchronisation. IEEE Signal Process Lett. 2004;11(12):948–951. doi:10.1109/LSP.2004.838213

4. Wei S, Goeckel DL, Valenti MC. Asynchronous cooperative diversity. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun. 2006;5(6):1547–1557. doi:10.1109/TWC.2006.1638675

5. Li Z, Xia XG. A simple Alamouti space-time transmission scheme for asynchronous cooperative systems. IEEE Signal Process Lett. 2007;14(11):803–807. doi:10.1109/LSP.2007.900224

6. Skjevling H, Gesbert D, Hjørungnes A. Precoded distributed space-time block codes in cooperative diversity-based downlink. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun. 2007;6(12):4209–4214. doi:10.1109/TWC.2007.051008

7. Tourki K, Deneire L. Channel and delay estimation algorithm for asynchronous cooperative diversity. Wireless Pers Commun. 2006;37:361–369. doi:10.1007/s11277-006-9033-x

8. Xu H, Padayachee L. Channel and delay estimation for base-station–based cooperative communications in frequency flat-fading channels. S Afr J Sci. 2010;106(3/4):32–37. doi:10.4102/sajs.v106i3/4.60

9. Mheidat H, Uysal M, Al-Dhahir N. Equalization techniques for distributed space-time block codes with amplify-and-forward relaying. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun. 2007;55(5):1839–1852.

10. Simeone O, Spagnolini U. Lower bound on training-based channel estimation error for frequency-selective block-fading Rayleigh MIMO channels. IEEE Trans Signal Processing. 2004;52(11):3265–3277. doi:10.1109/TSP.2004.836534

11. Sirbu M. Channel and delay estimation algorithms for wireless communication systems. PhD thesis, Helsinki, Helsinki University of Technology, 2003.

12. Li. Z, Xia XG, Lee MH. A simple orthogonal space-time coding scheme for asynchronous cooperative systems for frequency selective fading channels. IEEE Trans Commun. 2010;58(8):2219–2224. doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2010.08.090226

13. Dong M, Tong L. Optimal design and placement of pilot symbols for channel estimation. IEEE Trans Signal Processing. 2002;50(12):3055–3069. doi:10.1109/TSP.2002.805504

14. Zhou S, Giannakis GB. Single-carrier space-time block-coded transmissions over frequency-selective fading channels. IEEE Trans Inf Theory. 2003;49(1):164–178. doi:10.1109/TIT.2002.806158

15. Mheidat H. Channel estimation and equalization for cooperative communication. PhD thesis, Ontario, University of Waterloo, 2006.

16. Mheidat H, Uysal M. Equalization techniques for space-time coded cooperative systems. Paper presented at: IEEE 60th Vehicular Technology Conference 2004. Proceedings of IEEE 60th Vehicular Technology Conference; 2004 Sep 26–29; Los Angeles, California, USA. New York: IEEE Communications Society; 2004. p. 1708–1712.

17. Berriche L, Abed-Meraim K, Belfiore JC. Cramér-Rao bounds for MIMO channel estimation. Paper presented at: IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 2004. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing; 2004 May 17–21; Montreal, Canada. New York: IEEE Signal Processing Society; 2004. p. 397–400.

18. Fragouli C, Al-Dhahir N, Turin W. Training-based channel estimation for multiple-antenna broadband transmissions. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun. 2003;2(2):384–391. doi:10.1109/TWC.2003.809454

- Eqn 6
- Eqn 10
- Eqn 5
- Eqn 4
- Eqn 3
- Eqn 1
- Eqn 2
- Eqn 12
- Eqn 11
- Eqn 9
- Eqn 8
- Eqn 7
- Eqn 13
- Eqn 14
- Eqn 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20
- Eqn 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 and 29
- Eqn 30
- Eqn 31
- Eqn 32
- Eqn 33
- Eqn 34
- Eqn 35
- Eqn 36
- Eqn 37
- Eqn 38
- Eqn 39
- Eqn 40
- Eqn 41
- Eqn 42
- Eqn 43
- Eqn 44
- Eqn 45
- Eqn 46
- Eqn 47
- Eqn 48
- Eqn 49
- Eqn 50
- Eqn 51
- Eqn 52
- Eqn 53
- Eqn 54
- Eqn 55
- Eqn 56
- Eqn 57
- Eqn 58
- Eqn A1
- Eqn A2
- Eqn A3
- Eqn A5
- Eqn A6
- Eqn A4
- Figure 1
- Figure 2
- Figure 3
- Figure 4
- Figure 5
- Figure 6
- Figure 7
- Figure 8
- Figure 9
- Figure 10
- Image

Published

2011-07-13

Section

Research Articles